└▶ Diabetes: Many studies find that coffee—decaf or regular—lowers the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, but caffeine raises blood sugar in people who already have it.
└▶ Cancer: Earlier studies implicating coffee in causing cancer have been disproven; may instead lower the risk of colon, mouth, throat and other cancers.
└▶ Heart disease: Long-term coffee drinking does not appear to raise the risk and may provide some protection.
└▶ Hypertension: Caffeine raises blood pressure, so sufferers should be wary.
└▶ Cholesterol: Some coffee—especially decaf—raises LDL, the bad kind of cholesterol.
└▶ Alzheimer's: Moderate coffee drinking appears to be protective.
└▶ Osteoporosis: Caffeine lowers bone density, but adding milk can balance out the risk.
└▶ Pregnancy: Caffeine intake may increase the risk of miscarriage and low birth-weight babies.
└▶ Sleep: Effects are highly variable, but avoiding coffee after 3 p.m. can avert insomnia.
└▶ Mood: Moderate caffeine boosts energy and cuts depression, but excess amounts can cause anxiety.